In ancient times, throughout several separate era, Muslim scientists were responsible for many innovations, which aided civilizations and mankind in many ways. Those invented wonders hold, indeed very surprising and impressive story, that are worth sharing. Some of these inventions are –
In Kaffa region, on the southwestern side of Ethiopia in Africa continent, a person named ‘Khaleed’, who was an Arabian resident, noticed something rather peculiar and quite strange, which lead to the discovery of Coffee beans, while Khaleed was herding a flock of goats in the fields. He saw that after consuming a unique fruit, which has an appearance of a red or purple cherry, the animals seem to be a bit refreshed and energized. Khaleed then boiled those fruits, and had made the first coffee. Later this drink was exported to Yemen from Ethiopia, where it was very popular among the practitioners of Sufism, as in several special occasions, coffee helped them to stay awake at night and meditate. By the 15th century, the influence of coffee has reaches Mecca and Turkey, from there it went to the citizens of Venice, Italy in 1645. And in 1650, a Turkish man named Pask Rossi, went to England and established the first coffee shop, in Lombard Street. And from there this drink has gained popularity worldwide. (National Coffee Association of U.S.A., Inc)
The ancient Greeks believed that, the human eye holds laser ray like line of light, which allowed us to see. In 10th century Ibne Al-Haytham, who was a mathematician, astrologer and a physicist, stated that the amount of light that enters the human eyes are far greater than the amount that exits. The light can enter through a point, and after determining this fact, Ibne Al-Haytham invented the first pinhole camera. He understood that the quality of the picture depended on the size of the pinhole, the smaller the better. Taking this fact in account, he then set up a camera obscura also known as a darkroom. (Romero, 2016)
It is a well-known fact that Orville right and Wilbur Wright invented the airplane, but a thousand years from now in Spain, a Muslim poet, mathematician, named Ibne- Firnas tried to invent and vehicle that could fly in the air. In 852 century, he connected a fabric like material to wood, and then leaped from a tall tower, of Cordoba grand mosque. He expected to fly like a bird smoothly, but in reality, it was an unsuccessful attempt. But before landing, that fabric helped immensely reduce the speed of the fall, which prevented Abbas Ibne- Firnas from being involved with fatal injuries. This was considered the first parachute being invented in history. He later died at the age of 70, while being involved in a terribly failed experiment which he attempted to fly, though he managed to float in the air consistently for 10 minutes, but did not manage to land safely. (Laurendeau, 2012)
In modern medical science, a lot of medical equipment’s are essential for conducting a surgical operation. A lot of these invention of equipment were contribution of a Muslim scientist named Al-Zahrawi, around 10th century. He introduced over 200 surgical instruments, such as specula, scalpels, retractors, and other unique instruments designed for his favored techniques of cauterization and ligature. He also invented a special type of thread which dissolves naturally over time, which is widely used to sew and seal the wound after a successful operation. This thread is also utilized while making a capsule. (Glick, et al., 2005)
Windmill and Wind Turbine technology
In 638 A.D, with the purpose of producing grain powder and irrigation, for the Khalifa at that period, Persians invented Windmill. Due to hot and dry weather of Arab, it was difficult to utilize water source for better production, thus wind was the only form of force available. At that time, those designed windmill consisted 6 to 12 wings based, which proved to be very efficient. Later after 500 years, Europeans adapted and embraced this wonderful invention. (Third Planet Windpower, LLC., 2020)
In 953 A.D, fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt, to match his needs. He demanded to make such a pen which would not leak and ruin his hand or clothing attire, and must be portable and easy to carry. Thus, fountain pen was introduced which has the ability to hold and store ink, and was indeed considered a marvelous technology at that time. (THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE , 2016)
Glick, T. F., Livesey, S. & Wallis, F., 2005. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor and Francis Group.
Laurendeau, J., 2012. Early dreams of flight. In: Base Jumping: The Ultimate Guide. s.l.:Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.], pp. 40-41.
National Coffee Association of U.S.A., Inc, n.d. An Ethiopian Legend. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ncausa.org/about-coffee/history-of-coffee
[Accessed 23 January 2020].
Romero, L., 2016. IBN AL-HAYTHAM: The Man Who Discovered How We See. s.l.:National Geographic Society.
THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE , 2016. 11 Muslim inventions that shaped the modern world. THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE , 4 February .
Third Planet Windpower, LLC., 2020. Early Wind Power History. [Online]
Available at: http://www.thirdplanetwind.com/energy/history.aspx
[Accessed 23 January 2020].